The treaty provided for the independence of the Republic of Turkey, but also the protection of the Greek-Orthodox Christian minority in Turkey and the Muslim minority in Greece. However, the majority of Turkey`s Christian population and the Muslim population of Greece had already been expelled under the previous agreement signed by Greece and Turkey on the exchange of the Greek and Turkish population. Only the Greek Orthodox of Constantinople, Imbros and Tenedos (about 270,000 at the time) and the Muslim population of Western Thrace (about 129,120 in 1923) were excluded.  Article 14 of the Treaty granted the islands of Imbros (Gokéada) and Tenedos (Bozcaada) a “special administrative organization”, a right which the Turkish government had revoked on 17 February 1926. Turkey also formally accepted the loss of Cyprus (which had been leased to the British Empire after the Berlin Congress in 1878, but de jure remained Ottoman territory until the First World War). Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (both occupied by British troops under the pretext of defying the Urabi revolt in 1882 and restoring order, “but de jure the Ottoman territories remained until the First World War) were given to the British Empire, which had unilaterally annexed them on 5 November 1914.  The fate of Mosul province was to be determined by the League of Nations. Turkey also explicitly renounced all claims on the Dodecanese Islands that Italy was to return to Turkey in 1912, after the Italian-Turkish War (1911-1912), under Article 2 of the Ouchy Treaty.   Contracts are generally verbal or written, but written contracts have generally been favoured in common law legal systems;  In 1677, England passed the Fraud Act, which influenced similar fraud laws in the United States and other countries such as Australia.  As a general rule, the single code of commerce, as adopted in the United States, requires a written contract for the sale of material products over $500, and real estate contracts must be written. If the contract is not prescribed by law, an oral contract is valid and therefore legally binding.
 Meanwhile, the United Kingdom has replaced the original Fraud Act, but written contracts are still required for various circumstances such as the country (by property law in 1925).