The NNRA regulates labour relations only for companies involved in intergovernmental trade; it therefore does not protect the interests of collective agreements of all categories of workers. Several categories of employers are located outside the NRL, including those working for the U.S. government and its companies, states and their political divisions, railroads and airlines. The NNRA also does not protect certain types of workers, such as agricultural workers. B, independent contractors and managers. But other federal and regional laws often offer protection to workers outside the NRL. For example, federal employees have the right to bargain collectively under the Public Service Reform Act 1978, which is largely inspired by the NRA and enforced by the Federal Labour Relations Board. Railways and airlines are generally subject to the Railway Labor Act, the predecessor of the NLRA. In addition, many states have adopted statutes similar to those of the LNRA, which protect the right of civil servants and local authorities to bargain collectively.
Collective bargaining allows workers and employers to voluntarily agree on a wide range of issues. Nevertheless, it is limited to some extent by federal and regional laws. A collective agreement cannot be entered into by contract, which is prohibited by law. For example, a union and an employer may use unconventional negotiations to deprive workers of the rights they would otherwise enjoy under laws such as civil rights laws (Alexander v. Gardner-Denver Co., 415 U.S. 36, 94 P. Ct. 1011, 39 L Ed.
2d 147 ). Nor can collective bargaining be used to waive the rights or obligations that the laws impose on each party. For example, an employer cannot negotiate with collective agreements to lower safety standards that it must meet under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (29 U.S.C.A. Moreover, the collective agreement is not purely voluntary. The inability of one party to reach an agreement allows the other party to resort to certain legal tactics, such as strikes and lockouts, to exert economic pressure and to reach an agreement. Moreover, unlike trade agreements governed by national law, the collective agreement is almost exclusively governed by federal labour law, which determines issues that require collective bargaining, the date and nature of negotiations, and the consequences of non-negotiation or compliance with a collective agreement.